By using a more conventional teaching approach, like Gagné's nine events, to provide some rules for them to follow to avoid such a wrong attitude .. Date. Currency display. Color meanings. Person's name. Character set. Applying Gagne's nine-step model is an excellent way to ensure an effective and systematic learning program as it gives structure to the lesson plans and a. Back in , Robert Gagne detailed a nine-step instructional process that The steps are not meant to be absolute rules, but they do provide a a tests) so that they may review the material on their own time at a later date.
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The ideal number of learners for this kind of session is 4 or 5. The following instructional events can be organised for a lesson to teach insertion of a peritoneal drain: I Gaining attention When students arrive at class, their attention can be directed toward many other things, so in order for any learning to take place, first their attention must be captured and their interest should be aroused. Here are some examples: An abrupt stimulus change, such as gesturing or speaking loudly Starting the lesson with a thought-provoking question or interesting fact.
Providing an interesting visual or sound stimulus. Depending on the audience, multimedia like PowerPoint slides can be used to combine photographs, pictures, and sound. In our session, combining items 2 and 3 is a good starting point: There is no doubt that curiosity motivates students to learn.
II Informing the learner of the objective Early in each lesson students should encounter a list of learning objectives. This initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson. A direct statement can be used in our session: Consent the patient for insertion of a peritoneal drain Identify the correct anatomical point Identify the equipment required Prepare, position and monitor the patient Understand and perform the correct technique for insertion of a peritoneal drain under fully aseptic condition Understand the principles of securing, dressing and connecting the drain Understand the importance of appropriate analgesia post procedure Complete the appropriate documentation in patient's medical notes III Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning Associating new information with prior knowledge and personal experience and getting the learners to think about what they already know can facilitate the learning process.
In our session, minutes should be allocated for interactive discussion of the following: Asking questions about previous observations and experiences, indications of inserting a peritoneal drain, relevant anatomy, findings on examination and relevant tests before the procedure to confirm the diagnosis e. Content should be organised meaningfully, and explained and demonstrated using a variety of media. In our session, different steps of the procedure should be explained: How to consent the patient, monitoring, equipment needed, positioning the patient, the technique of peritoneal drain insertion and how to secure the drain.
Finally, tests needed after the procedure biochemistry, cytology and microbiology tests on the fluid sample , and appropriate analgesia should be explained. The Retrieval Phase The fourth phase of learning is the retrieval phase. It is the ability to call out the information that has been acquired and stored in memory. The process of information retrieval is very imprecise, disorganized, and even mystical.
Types of Learning There are eight types of learning. They are signal learning, stimulus-response learning, chaining, verbal association, discrimination learning, concept learning, rule learning, and problem solving.
Below are the descriptions of each type of learning. Signal Learning Signal learning is involuntary learning resulting from either a single instance or a number of repetitions of a stimulus which will evoke an emotional response in an individual. In order for signal learning to occur, there must be a neutral signal stimulus and a second, unexpected stimulus that will evoke an emotional response in the learner which he or she will associate with the neutral stimulus. In the example of the person who learned to fear group signing in a first grade music class, the neutral signal stimulus was singing in a group and the unexpected stimuli were a shout and a slap.
As a mathematics teacher, we should attempt to generate unconditioned stimuli which will evoke pleasant emotions in our students and hope that they will associate some of these pleasant sensations with the natural signal which is our mathematics classroom. Stimulus-Response Learning Stimulus-response learning is also learning to respond to a signal. It is voluntary and physical. Most examples of pure stimulus-response learning in people are found in young children. They are learning to say words, carry out various life-supporting functions, use simple tools, and display socially acceptable behaviors.
Chaining Chaining is the sequential connection of two or more previously learned non-verbal stimulus- response actions. The examples of chaining are tying a shoe, opening a door, starting an automobile, throwing a ball, sharpening a pencil, and painting a ceiling.
In order for chaining to occur, the learner must have previously learned each stimulus-response link required in the chain.
If each link has been learned, chaining can be facilitated by helping the learner establish the correct sequence of stimulus-response acts for the chain. Most activities in mathematics which entail manipulation of physical devices such as rulers, compasses, and geometric models require chaining.
Learning to bisect an angle with a straightedge and a compass requires proper sequencing and implementing of a set of previously learned stimulus-response type skills. Among these skills are the ability to use a compass to strike an arc and the ability to construct a straight line between two points. Verbal Association Verbal association is chaining of verbal stimuli; that is, the sequential connection of two or more previously learned verbal stimulus-response actions.
The mental processes involved in verbal association are very complex and not completely understood at present. Most researchers do agree that efficient verbal association requires the use of intervening mental links which act as codes and which can be either verbal, auditory, or visual images. The most important use of the verbal association type of learning is in verbal dialogue.
Good oratory and writing depend upon a vast store of memorized verbal associations in the mind of the orator or writer. To express ideas and rational arguments in mathematics it is necessary to have a large store of verbal association about mathematics.
Discrimination Learning Discrimination learning is learning to differentiate among chains; that is, to recognize various physical and conceptual objects. There are two kinds of discrimination.
They are single discrimination and multiple-discrimination. This somewhat disorganized learning situation can, and usually does, result in several phenomena of multiple discrimination learning generalization, extinction, and interference. Concept Learning Concept learning is learning to recognize common properties of concrete objects or events and responding to these objects or events as a class.
In order for students to learn a concept, simpler types of prerequisite learning must have occurred. Acquisition of any specific concept must be accompanied by prerequisite stimulus- response chains, appropriate verbal associations, and multiple-discrimination of distinguishing characteristics.
For example, the first step in acquiring the concept of circle might be learning to say the word circle as a self-generated stimulus-response connection, so that students can repeat the word. Then students may learn to identify several different objects as circles by acquiring individual verbal association. Next, students may learn to discriminate between circles and other objects such as triangles and squares.
It is also important for students to be exposed to circles in a wide variety of representative situations so that they learn to recognize circles which are 15 imbedded in more complex objects. When the students are able to spontaneously identify circles in unfamiliar contexts, they have acquired the concept of circle.
Rule Learning Rule learning is the ability to respond to an entire set of situations stimuli with a whole set of actions responses. Rule learning appears to be the predominant type of learning to facilitate efficient and coherent human functioning.
Our speech, writing, routine daily activities, and many of our behaviors are governed by rules which we have learned. In order for people to communicate and interact, and for society to function in any form except anarchy, a huge and complex set of rules must be learned and observed by a large majority of people.
Much of mathematics learning is rule learning. For example, we know that and that ; however without knowing the rule that can be represented by , we would not be able to generalize beyond those few specific multiplication problem which we have already attempted. In first, most people learn and use the rule that multiplication is commutative without being able to state it. Mathematics teachers need to be aware that being able to state a definition or write a rule on a sheet of paper is little indication of whether a student has learned the rule.
If students are to learn a rule they must have previously learned the chains of concepts that constitute the rule. The conditions of rule learning begin by specifying the behavior expected of the learner in order to verify that the rule has been learned. A rule has been learned when the learner can appropriately 16 and correctly apply the rule in a number of different situations. In his book The Conditions of Learning, Robert Gagne gives a five step instructional sequence for teaching rules: Inform the learner about the form of the performance to be expected when learning is completed.
Question the learner in a way that requires the reinstatement recall of the previously learned concepts that make up the rule. Use verbal statements cues that will lead the learner to put the rule together, as a chain of concepts, in the proper order.
Optional, but useful for later instruction: By a suitable question, require the learner to make a verbal statement of the rule. Problem-Solving As one might expect, problem-solving is a higher order and more complex type learning than rule-learning, and rule acquisition is prerequisite to problem-solving. In addition, these activities accommodate all the four modalities of learning styles as suggested by Fleming and Mills These objectives intend to list the skills and proficiencies the participants will hopefully be able to achieve after the session Adam, As Gagne et al 13 suggest, previously acquired knowledge must be accessible during the process of the current learning event.
This helps to facilitate the learning process by allowing participants to integrate this new learning into their own reality by interpreting it based on their previous experiences, beliefs, and mental structures Good and Brophy, Those without prior experience will then be able to benefit from the experiences of others. This is followed by an open discussion to encourage participants to share their thoughts and foster the development of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences.
Topics covered in this presentation include a comprehensive introduction to the equipment used, the preparation necessary for the procedure, and finally, a step-by-step method to measuring IOP using GAT. Participants are also presented with a variety of commonly used tonometers including the applanation tonometer and the Perkins tonometer to stimulate their kinaesthetic and visual learning cues.
Finally, on the basis of Peyton four-step approach for practical skills teaching demonstrate—deconstruct—comprehend—perform , 17 , 18 there follows a demonstration of the actual procedure at a normal pace without any explanation. Providing learning guidance As the session progresses, the different parts of an applanation tonometer and the method of calibration of the tonometer will be discussed.
Before proceeding on to explaining each of the steps to measure IOP via GAT, participants will be provided a procedural checklist Figure 1 , so that they will be able to focus on establishing competency in the specified areas. These areas include hygiene, patient safety, equipment gathering, tonometry procedure illumination, applanation, measurement , interpretation of results, and finally, an overall professionalism when performing the procedure.
The procedure is then performed again, but this time with a full explanation of each step and practical tips on the use of GAT. Participants are encouraged to ask questions and take notes for future reference to allow for better comprehension of the practical procedure taught.
Figure 1 Procedural checklist: This next task is a major part of this learning session, and it involves allowing the participants to learn through performing the procedure themselves. By experiencing all three roles, participants will gain more insight into the procedure, enhancing their learning process.
Providing feedback Feedback is important because it allows participants to maximize their potential by affording them a chance to be aware of their strengths and weaknesses, allowing them to identify actions to be taken to improve their performance.
While participants are performing GAT, they are provided with immediate feedback to allow them to clarify any uncertainties that may arise. Timely feedback is essential for a good learning process and to foster good clinical practices. It also provides the opportunity to share positive and constructive feedback to students.
Ask participants to assess their own performance. Tell what you observed using positive and constructive methods.
Use specific behaviors without judgment. Close by committing to an action plan. Assessing performance Following the practice session, participants will be required to demonstrate their procedural skills.
How to use Gagne's model of instructional design in teaching psychomotor skills
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